4.7.2 Protocol : Siemens SINAUT ST1


 

Telegram structure

The SINAUT ST1 protocol uses only the telegram frames FT1.2 following the standard DIN19244 und IEC60870. Formats with fixed and variable length are also admitted as the single characters E5H and A2H.

Each telegram consists of single UART signs, one start bit, 8 bits information, 1 parity bit and one stop bit. The transmission of data bytes takes place after the principle "LSB first". It is an asynchronous protocol with hamming distance = 4. Via the parity bit in the asynchronous character each byte is secured with d = 2. The telegram section, defined via the block length, is additionally secured with a check sum, whereby a hamming distance of d = 4 is reached. As the start sign and the block length are not contained in the check sum they are transmitted twice and therefore the same high transmission security of d = 4 is reached. The checksum is the arithmetic sum over all user data bytes.

 

Information about the structure of the telegram see
<SINAUT ST1 : Telegram structure>

 


SINAUT ST1 : Configuration

 

 

With the channel button ( channel 1 ...12 ) on the bottom following settings are possible :

 

Each character has one start bit ( binary = 0 ), 8 information bits and normally one even parity bit and one stop bit ( binary = 1 ).

 

Interface

For each channel any COM port ( COM 1 till COM 24 ) can be selected.

Modem

An individual modem can be installed and connected for each channel. LIAN 98 is able to process up to twelve modems in the range of COM1 till COM24 simultaneously. Select here the modem assigned to the selected channel. Normally this assignment will be recognized by LIAN 98 and the corresponding modem will be set.

Setup Modem

The settings of the modem must be executed via the windows control panel "telephone and modem options". With this button you can check the modem settings and see if they correspond to the LIAN 98 configuration.

Connection type
Full duplex :

Most of the modems are full duplex and can transmit data in both directions simultaneously. DTE ( LIAN 98 ) and DCE ( Modem ) work simultaneously as transmitter and receiver. None of both transmitters has to wait for clearance for transmitting data. Therefore the signals RTS and CTS are not significant. Sure, LIAN 98 is setting the control signals RTS and DTR to 1 when it is ready for transmission and receipt but it does not check the signals CTS and DSR.

Half duplex :

In case of a half duplex connection DTE ( LIAN 98 ) as well as DCE ( Modem ) can work as transmitter and receiver, hereby only one data line ( 2-wire connection ) is available that can be used alternately for transmission or receipt of data. The control signals RTS and CTS are used in order to define the allocation of transmission or receipt. When LIAN 98 should work as transmitter it activates the signal RTS and waits for the confirmation of the modem via the signal CTS. After the receipt of the signal CTS the data are transmitted and after the transmission of the data the signal RTS is set to 0. In each other case LIAN 98 is working as receiver only.

As long as the LIAN 98 software is ready for transmission and receipt the signal DTR is activated in order to show the modem that LIAN 98 is ready for operation, as well the software expects an activated DSR signal from the modem.

RTS Leading delay

0 ... 1000 msec
This parameter ist only used for the connection type "half duplex" and is determined by the initial transient behaviour of the used transmission equipment.
The RTS Leading defines the delay time from activating RTS signal to transmitting the first character and is used for modems whithout the hardware handshake signals "RTS and CTS". In this case the "RTS signal" must be led back over the "CTS line" to the PC with the help of a brazing bridge in the monitor cable. Dependent of the used modem it may be necessary to connect additionally the DTR-pin with the DSR-pin.
This function is deactivated if the "Leading and the Trailing" is set to NULL and therefore the control signals are analyzed diectly from the modem.

RTS Trailing delay

0 ... 1000 msec
This parameter ist only used for the connection type "half duplex" and is determined by the final transient behaviour of the used transmission equipment.
The RTS Trailing defines the delay time from the last character transmitted up to the RTS signal is deactivated.
This function is deactivated, if the "Leading and the Trailing" is set to NULL.

 

Baud rate

Transmission speed : 25 - 115200 Baud ( variable )

Data byte

8 bit ( fixed )

Stop bit

1 bit ( variable )

Parity

even ( variable )

Time out

1 - 9999 msec ( variable )

 

Transmission procedure
S : balanced,
point to point

If balanced transmission procedure is used, each station may initiate message transfers. The balanced mode is restricted to "end-end configuration" or "multiple end-end configuration". Balanced mode can be used in a full duplex transmission.

U : unbalanced,
party line

Unbalanced transmission is used in SCADA systems in which a master station controls the data traffic by polling outstations sequentially.
The master station is the primary station that initiates all message transfers while outstations are secondary stations ( slaves ) that may transmit only when they are polled.
The unbalanced mode can be used generally, but must be used in party line configuration.

 


SINAUT ST1 : Simulation

 

SINAUT ST1 : RTI ( Master )-Simulation

In the party line ( unbalanced ) LIAN 98 simulates  a MASTER and can communicate with up to 32 connected substations simultaneously.

 

Station number
( Address of the target station )

All telegrams to be sent are provided with the station number of the SIM list during master simulation. Exception for unbalanced mode :

. If the station number 255 ( one octet address ) of a "BROADCAST command" is inserted in a telegram of the TDB buffer, the telegram will be transmitted unchanged with the address already inserted.

. If a station number of the scan list is inserted in the telegram it will be transmitted unchanged with the address already inserted.

Master(RTI) number

 

Response timeout

1 - 30 000 msec

A fixed time out interval is provided to be used for repeated transmissions. The time out interval and maximum number of retries are configurable and appropriate values will depend on the transmission system.

This parameter determines the time in milliseconds that the program LIAN 98 as master station at most has to wait for an acknowledge before the last transmission is repeated.

Number of frame retries

0 - 255

Via this parameter it is defined how many times the transmission is to be repeated when the acknowledge is missing.

Enable clock synchronization

yes / no

After the initialization of the communication LIAN 98 will transmit first of all a time synchronization command and will repeat it cyclic ( Clock SYNC cycle time ), if this parameter is activated.

Clock SYNC cycle time

1 - 1440 minutes

Dependent on this time LIAN 98 as master station will transmit the time synchronization command continually.

Clock SYNC command

TDB buffer number where the organizational telegram ( ORG 10 ) is stored.

Use system date/ time

yes / no

The system time of the PC will be taken over into the time synchronization command ( ORG 10 ) before the telegram will be transmitted, if this parameter is activated. Alternatively the telegram remains unchanged as before edited by the user.

Enable general interrogation

yes / no

After the initialization of the communication LIAN 98 will transmit a general interrogation command and will repeat it cyclic ( GI cycle time ), when necessary if this parameter is activated.

GI cycle time

1 - 1440 minutes

Dependent on this time LIAN 98 as master station will transmit the general interrogation command continually.

GI command

TDB buffer number where the organizational telegram ( ORG 8 ) is stored.

 

 

Insert scan addresses
Number of addresses
delete
insert

Unbalanced : ( party line )
All stations to be processed at this line have to be inserted into the scan list. LIAN 98 establishes the connection to this stations and interrogates continuously the user data of this stations.

In order to insert the addresses please proceed as follows :

Activate "Insert scan addresses" ( button "insert" will be displayed ).
Insert in the fields "Link address" / "Address of ASDU" the station to be entered in the scan list.
Take over the addresses into the scan list by clicking "insert".
When all stations are inserted, please deactivate "insert scan addresses" ( button "insert" disappears ).

In order to delete a station out of this list select it and click "delete".

Disable automatic scan

Unbalanced : yes / no

When the communication establishment is finished, LIAN 98 starts automatically the request of the user data ( polling ). If it is not wanted the request can be deactivated here.

Polling

Unbalanced :
Number of the TDB buffers where the polling telegram is stored.

Scan delay

Unbalanced : 0 - 30 000 msec

This parameter determines the time that the program LIAN 98 delays the next polling telegram.

 

 

Acknowledge

Unbalanced :
Number of the TDB buffer where the acknowledge of the master ( A2H ) is stored.

 

SINAUT ST1 : RTU ( Slave )-Simulation

 

 

Station number

All telegrams to be sent are provided with the station number out of the SIM list during slave simulation.

Response timeout

Balanced : 1 - 30 000 msec

A fixed time out interval is provided to be used for repeated transmissions. This time out interval and the maximum number of retries are configurable and appropriate values will depend on the transmission system.

This parameter determines the time in milliseconds that the program LIAN 98 as substation at most has to wait for an acknowledge before the last transmission is repeated.

Number of frame retries

Balanced : 0 - 255

Via this parameter it is defined how many times the last transmission is to be repeated when the acknowledge ( only balanced ) is missing.

Enable clock synchronization

yes / no

The current system time of the PC is given back in the "activation confirmation" of the time synchronization command, if this parameter is activated. Otherwise the received time will be only mirrored.

Set new system date/ time

yes / no

The current system time of the PC is given back in the "activation confirmation" of the time synchronization command, if this parameter is activated. Otherwise the received time will be only mirrored.

Time correction
( for system time of the PC )

0 - 9 999 msec ( correction of transmission time )

A correction value can be entered for the setting of the PC system time with a time synchronization command. It will be added onto the received value in the synchronization command.

Clock SYNC command

TDB buffer number where the organizational telegram ( ORG 10 ) is stored.

Use system date/ time

yes / no

The system time of the PC will be inserted in the time stamp of the telegram before transmission. Otherwise the telegram remains unchanged as before edited by the user.

 

 

Acknowledge

Unbalanced :
Number of the TDB buffer where the acknowledge of the master ( E5H ) is stored.

 

SINAUT ST1 : Routing table

 

Another highlight of LIAN 98 is the use of the software as protocol router between the protocols Siemens SINAUT ST1 and IEC 104. When using all twelve channels the ST1 substations can be connected via the channels 1...11 and can communicate with an IEC104 client via channel 12 ( TCP/ IP network ). The stations can work point-to-point as well as in party line mode.

( see : <SINAUT ST1 Master/ IEC104 Router> and <IEC 60870-5-104 Server/ ST1 Router> )

 

 

Enable router

yes / no

When this parameter is activated, the LIAN 98 starts the "ST1 Master" with router function for the for the associated channel and establishes a connection to the substation. The assignment to the channel is set in the configuration ( KNF ) over the parameter "simulation list".
( see : SINAUT ST1 : RTI ( Master )-Simulation )

Message format

With this parameter the message format of the connected client/ master is selected.

. IEC 60870-5-104

Insert routing channel
Number of channels
delete
insert

All connected clients which should be taken into account from the LIAN 98 router have to be entered into the channel list.

In order to insert all connected clients please proceed as follows :

activate "insert routing channel" ( button "insert" is displayed ).
Insert in the fields "Address of ASDU" / "Channel number" the client to be entered. Take over the clients into the channel list by clicking "insert". When all channels are inserted please deactivate "Insert routing channels" ( button "insert" disappears ).

In order to delete one or more channels out of this list select it and click "delete".

 

SINAUT ST1 : Simulation procedures

 

Simulation of the communication services :

 

Station initialization

 

Data acquisition by cyclic polling
( unbalanced )

 

 

Simulation of the application functions :

 

Cyclic data transmission

 

Acquisition of events
( unbalanced )

 

General interrogation

The general interrogation is used in order to update the controlled station after the initialization or when the controlling station detects a loss of information.
The general interrogation function of the controlling station requests the controlled station to transmit the actual values of all processing variables. The interrogation procedure is finished when the controlling station receives the message "end of interrogation"

Clock synchronization

Date and time of controlled stations are initially synchronized by the controlling station after initialization and afterwards re-synchronized periodically.

Command transmission

 

 


SINAUT ST1 : Pre-filter/ Pre-trigger

 

It is absolutely necessary to set the start byte ( 10H or 68H ) for the filter- and trigger settings. With the start byte is determined whether the filter definition is valid for a telegram with fxed length or a telegram with variable length.

 

SINAUT ST1 : Monitoring filters

 

Monitoring filters reduce capture on particular pre-defined data records. By setting the corresponding filters a carefully directed data preselection can be achieved, which results in a reduction of the data to be analyzed later.

 

 

Filter released

yes / no

With this option already set monitoring filters for one channel can be deactivated temporarily without deleting them.

Protocol specific
filter mask

Here monitoring can be filtered for telegram specific values in which several OR-linked filter masks can be defined for the channel.

= Only values equal to 'from' are let through.
# Only values not equal to 'from' are let through.
< Only values less than 'from' are let through.
> Only values greater than 'from' are let through.
R 'from' and 'till' define a valid range
add Adds the next OR-element.
remove Removes the current OR-element.

 

SINAUT ST1 : Action filters

 

For the simulation and execution of data tests actions can be caused with the receipt of defined records. Therefore the possibility exists to define action filters, that effect the transmission of a send-sequence or transmit one or more message buffers ( TDB ).

 

 

Action filter released

yes / no

With this option already set action filters for one channel can be deactivated temporarily without deleting them.

protocol specific
filter mask

The action filter is described over telegram specific features corresponding to a filter setting. Additionally each action filter requires an allocation to a send buffer or alternatively to a send sequence.

= Only values equal to 'from' are let through.
# Only values not equal to 'from' are let through.
< Only values less than 'from' are let through.
> Only values greater than 'from' are let through.
R 'from' and 'till' define a valid range
Sendbuffer number
( from, from/ till )

In correspondence with the action filter the message buffer "from" or the message buffers "from/ till" are to be sent.

Sequence line number
( from, from/ till )

In correspondence with the action filter the send sequence is to be started at line number "from" or to be started at line number "from" and to be ended at line number "till".

add Adds the next OR-element.
remove Removes the current OR-element.

 

SINAUT ST1 : Start trigger

 

With the receipt of a telegram pre-defined as start trigger, recording is started.

 

 

Start trigger released

yes / no

With this option already set start triggers for one channel can be deactivated temporarily without deleting them.

protocol specific
trigger mask

Here you can define telegram specific start triggers for monitoring in which several OR-linked triggers can be defined for the channel.

= Only values equal to 'from' are let through.
# Only values not equal to 'from' are let through.
< Only values less than 'from' are let through.
> Only values greater than 'from' are let through.
R 'from' and 'till' define a valid range
add Adds the next OR-element.
remove Removes the current OR-element.

 

SINAUT ST1 : Stop trigger

 

Monitoring can also be stopped by telegram-specific filters and/ or "stop on error" after a defined number of following records. The number of the following records is defined in the field "records after stop on error/ stop trigger" in the global parameters of the VFL settings.

 

 

Stop trigger released

yes / no

With this option already set stop triggers for one channel can be deactivated temporarily without deleting them.

protocol specific
trigger mask

Here you can define telegram specific stop triggers for monitoring in which several OR-linked triggers can be defined for the channel.

= Only values equal to 'from' are let through.
# Only values not equal to 'from' are let through.
< Only values less than 'from' are let through.
> Only values greater than 'from' are let through.
R 'from' and 'till' define a valid range
add Adds the next OR-element.
remove Removes the current OR-element.

 


Each alteration in the settings is displayed by an asterisk * in the caption title and will be only effective after saving.

 


SINAUT ST1 : Message display format

 

The sent and received messages of all channels are entered binary into the archive file. Before displaying on screen, the binary archived data are coverted to an easily readable procedure specific plaintext. In order to optimize the representation it can be chosen between five different plaintext settings. The plaintext format is set separately for each channel.
( see also "FMT file - Display format" )

 

 

Plaintext format 1

Everything is displayed : Telegram header, telegram number and information elements

 

Plaintext format 2

No header is displayed : Only telegram number and information elements

 

Plaintext format 3

No header and telegram number is displayed : Only information elements are displayed

 

Plaintext format 4

No telegram number and information element is displayed : Only telegram header is displayed

 

Plaintext format 5

No information element is displayed : Only telegram header and telegram number

 

Additional to the plaintext output the transmission data can also be displayed in hexadecimal, decimal, ASCII, binary ( LSB first ) or binary ( MSB first ). Of course the plain text output can also be deactivated in order to display the transmission data only e.g. hexadecimal.

 


SINAUT ST1 : Error messages

 

Error checks during receipt

 

per character

the start bit, the stop bit and the parity bit.

per frame

the start character, the frame checksum and the end character and the
length ( 2 bytes ) and second start character in frames with variable length.

 

*** TimeOut !

Within a telegram, there may be no pause between characters. In case of timeout occurs it is assumed that it is the end of the telegram and the telegram check is started. The sensitivity can be parameterized in the configuration ( timeout ).
Normally a time out is no error, but it is stored in the PRO file together with the initial error for a better analysis of the faulty transmission line in connection with a line error.

*E: COM-PORT !

Error during writing on the COM port. May be it is already occupied by another program.

*E: Length !

The length of the telegram is wrong. For telegrams with fixed length the length is not 5.

*E: Format !

The repetition of the length or the start characters ( 68H ) in the message header are faulty, or the stop byte ( 16H ) is missing or set wrongly.

*E: Checksum !

The message checksum in the checksum byte is incorrect.

*E: SYNC !

The receive routine initially searches for 68H, 10H, E5H ( or A2H ). Each other character is noted as synchronization error and inserted in the PRO file.

*E: Overflow !

Error message from the UART. This error is noted only in the PRO file.

*E: Parity !

Error message from the UART. This error is noted only in the PRO file.

*E: Start/ Stop !

Error message from the UART. This error is noted only in the PRO file.

 

Error checks during simulation

 

*E: DIR-bit !

Direction bit has an incorrect value

*E: unexpected !

The respond at this time was not expected.

*E: Link address !

The received station number is incorrect or the entry in the SIM list is wrong.

*E: Sequence !

The telegram counter ( TZ ) in the received telegram does not correspond to the TZ expected by LIAN 98. This error message can occur at the beginning after switching on the simulation, when the TZ of the master and the substation are not still synchronized. Subsequently LIAN 98 takes over the new TZ of the received telegram and expects in the next telegram a TZ increased by one. The counter for short telegrams and the counter for long telegrams are administrated separately.

*E: TypeID ! The used TypeID is not provided. ( see protocol specific parameters - PAR File )

SINAUT ST1 : Parameter list

 

SINAUT ST1 : TypeID assignment list

Unfortunately the TypeID is not recognizable out of the ST1 telegram. In the process system it is assigned through data definitions to the telegram number. In LIAN 98 an unambiguous TypeID is defined for each data type in order to display the information ( indications, measurands ... ) in an easily readable plaintext and not only hexadecimal. With the help of the parameter list the correct typeID can be assigned to the telegram numbers. Organizational telegrams are unambiguous and must not entered in the parameter list.

 

 

line

Line number : ( 1 ... 512 )

STA from

Station number from : The assignment is valid for that station, if the parameter "STA till" is not specified. Otherwise, the assignment applies to all stations in the specified range.

STA till

Station number till : If this parameter is specified, the assignment is valid for the entire range of stations.

con

Control direction : If this parameter is set to 1, the telegram number / type assignment is valid for telegrams in control direction. Otherwise, for telegrams in monitoring direction.

TNR from

from telegram number : The assignment is valid for that telegram number, if the parameter "TNR till" is not specified. Otherwise, the assignment applies to all telegram numbers in the specified range.

TNR till

till telegram number : If this parameter is specified, the assignment is valid for the entire range of telegram numbers.

TypeID

Type of information : Type identification number for the process information in control or monitoring direction.

 

The state of the delivery of the list is only to see as an example and certainly needs to be adapted to your plant. The definition of the telegram type numbers you will find in the ST1 chapter <Telegram structure>.

 


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Manual LIAN 98


LIAN 98 Protocol Router, Simulator and Analyzer
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