Part VI : Protocol Router for the Process Operation


 

 

 

6.1  104Router ( Stand Alone Router )


 

Protocol 60870-5-104 ( TCP / IP ) over LAN is increasingly used for the connection to control centers. Companies already running IEC 60870-5-101 substations can convert the serial protocol IEC 101 into the network protocol IEC 60870-5-104 with the stand-alone software 104ROUTER. In this way it is possible to maintain the complete telecontrol equipment. The use of the 104ROUTER is especially suitable for small control systems ( building automation, emergency systems, ... ) with manageable substations.

The software 104ROUTER offers a PC-based cost-effective and fast software solution for the transmission between control center and substations.

 

click to enlarge image

 

Following protocols can be converted with the 104Router :

  • IEC 60870-5-101  to  IEC 60870-5-104  ( IEC101 serial to IEC104 TCP/IP network )

  • Siemens SINAUT ST1  to  IEC 60870-5-104  ( SINAUT ST1 serial to IEC104 TCP/IP network )

  • Modbus RTU mode  to  Modbus NET mode  ( Modbus serial to Modbus TCP/IP network )

Additional functions in the 104Router :

  • Automatic dial-up service ( AWD ) for the protocol IEC 60870-5-101

  • Diagnosis functions, e.g. capture transmission data of particular channels

 


Program 104Router

 

When using all twelve channels of 104ROUTER e.g. 10 ( point to point ) substations can be routed to 2 network clients. Of course substations can also be connected as a line and operated in multi-point traffic.

The integration of systems into 104ROUTER is very easy due to low efforts in parameterization. Therefore the router can be adjusted fast and without problems. The configuration is limited only to a few parameters such as e.g. the correlation from ASDU addresses to the channel number.

 

 

When during commissioning not all system components ( e.g. the IEC104 client or a IEC101 substation ) are available it is of course possible to simulate temporarily the missing components for the integration test with LIAN 98.

In this example an IEC 104 client is connected to the router channel 4 and the IEC 101 substations are connected "point-to-point" on channel 1 and channel 2.

104Router : IEC 60850-5-101 substations using balanced transmission procedure
( PDF file - size 1.094 KB )


In this example an IEC 104 client is connected to the router channel 4 and the IEC 101 substations to channel 1 in party line configuration.

104Router : IEC 60850-5-101 substations using unbalanced transmission procedure
( PDF file - size 927 KB )


104Router : Toolbar - Mainframe

 

 

New document

Creates a new, empty document.

This function is not needed by the user. It is available only for special cases !

Open document

Opens an existing document.

This function is not needed by the user. It is available only for special cases !

Save document

Saves the file just opened and handled. Not saved changes are displayed with an " * " in the caption title. The asterisk disappears after saving.

Save document as

Saves the file just opened and handled under a new name. Therefore it is possible to prepare and store e.g. different configurations, simulation lists or parameter lists for different tests. This lists can be later used by selecting in the configuration.

     
RTG

Opens the router window
 

The router window can also be opened by pressing the key "R".

KNF

Define process configuration
Settings of hard- and software parameters for the operation and parameterization of the individual channels according to protocol type, transmission mode, data format and so on.

The configuration window can also be opened by pressing the key "K".

SIM

Simulation list
Channel specific settings of all parameters needed for the router operation.

The SIM list can also be opened by pressing the key "S".

VFL

Filter-/ trigger used for capture ( monitoring filters )
With the help of protocol-specific filters the recording data can be limited to particular data sets during capture.

To trigger means that a certain telegram, defined with the help of protocol specific filters, can start ( start trigger ) or stop ( stop filter ) the capture. The user can set the number of subsequent frames after the occurrence of the event. There are start-, stop- and time triggers or trigger on errors.

The VFL file can also be opened by pressing the key "V".

NFL

Filter-/ trigger used for analysis of recorded data ( analysis filters )
With the help of protocol-specific filters the recording data can be limited to particular data sets during analysis.

To trigger means that a certain telegram, defined with the help of protocol specific filters, can start ( start trigger ) or stop ( stop filter ) the analysis. The user can set the number of subsequent frames after the occurrence of the event. There are start-, stop- and time triggers or trigger on errors.

FMT

Formats for the message representation during capture
With the setting of the formats the user can define in which format the telegrams should be displayed. The format settings are valid for the capture window and the analysis of the ARC file.

The format file can also be opened by pressing the key "F".

PRO

Opens the PRO file - Analysis of transmission errors
Errors during transmission are not only inserted into the archive but also stored in a separate protocol file ( PRO file ).

ARC

Opens the ARC file - Analysis of recorded data
The transmitted and recorded data stored binary in the ARC file are displayed in plaintext corresponding to the format settings. ( Button FMT ). When the ARC file is opened, additionally a TRP file with the same name will be created.

TRP

Opens the TRP file
When opening the recorded data ( Button ARC ) a TRP file ( only text or Rich-Text ) is created automatically for further external treatment. A TRP file can also be saved out of the archive under a new name with the button "save as".

PAR

Opens the PAR file - Parameter list
The parameter list contains protocol- and process specific parameters needed for the operation of the router.

The PAR file is only required for protocol routing from Siemens SINAUT ST1 to IEC 60870-5-104 for both protocols.

The parameter list can also be opened by pressing the key "P".

     
page view

This view offers the possibility to scroll through the pages or to print particular pages or the whole document.
Before this function can be used, a printer must be installed under the operation system.
Font and size for the page view can be adapted to your monitor resolution via the menu item <view - printer fonts>. The print margins are set via the menu item <file - page setup>.

Print

Prints the active document with the current settings, performed via the menu item <view - printer fonts> and <file - page setup>.

Windows overlapped

Arranges the opened windows overlapped.

Windows side by side

Arranges the opened windows side by side.

Windows one among the other

Arranges the opened windows one among the other.

Information about 104Router Displays information and functions about the 104Router.

 

104Router : Toolbar - Router Window

 

Save file

Saves the file just opened and handled. Not saved changes are displayed with an " * " in the caption title. The asterisk disappears after saving. In this case the contents of the router overview window will be saved into the RTG file.

Save file as

Saves the file just opened and handled under a new name. In this case the contents of the router overview window will be saved into a RTG file with a new name.

     
Run Router

Starts the router function for each of the 12 channels, provided the parameter "enable router" is marked in the SIM list of the particular channel.

Stop Router

Stops the router function for all activated channels simultaneously.

     
Capture active
( indicates only the status )

This button is used only to indicate if capture function is activated for at least one channel.

Pause - stops screen output
temporarily

The screen output in the capture window is suppressed temporarily. The entry into the archive takes place undisturbed. By pressing the button again the screen output will be continued.

Instead of the button also the "space bar" can be use to stop or continue the screen output.

Stop capture

Stops capture for all channels simultaneously. The router operation is still running undisturbed.

Delete active Pane Clears up the active window pane of the router window.
select font

Selects the font for the screen. Font and size for the overview pane and the capture pane can be set separately. Click first at the corresponding window pane and afterwards "select font". The settings will be lost when closing the window.

page view

Shows a preview of the active window pane. This view offers the possibility to scroll through the pages or to print particular pages or the whole document.
Before this function can be used, a printer must be installed under the operation system.
Font and size for the page view can be adapted to your monitor resolution via the menu item <view - printer fonts>. The print margins are set via the menu item <file - page setup>.

Print

Prints the active document with the current settings, performed via the menu item <view - printer fonts> and <file - page setup>.

 

104Router : Channel related toolbars in the router window

 

 

Start capture
for a particular channel

.
.
.

By pressing a specific channel button, the recording is started for that channel. Then telegrams in control- and monitoring direction are displayed in the capture window. All sent and received messages of this channel are shown in chronological order. By pressing the button again the capture for this channel will be stopped.

Of course, it is possible to capture several channels simultaneously in the same window.

Start router for this channel

By pressing this button the router function for this channel is started manually.

Stop router for this channel

By pressing this button the router function for this channel is stopped manually. Other channels continue working undisturbed and will not be affected.

RTI ( master ) active
( indicates only the status )

This button is used only to indicate that this channel will execute the function of a master.

RTU ( server ) active
( indicates only the status )

This button is used only to indicate that this channel will execute the function of a server.

Connect channel via modem

After pressing this phone button the modem status window opens. The 104Router is now ready for incoming calls. When the button is not enabled, no modem is installed for this channel.

Disconnect modem

The modem status window will not be closed until pressing this button. Thereby also an existing connection is closed and the 104Router can no longer be called. Prior to that, the communication with the partner should be terminated via button "Stop router for this channel".

Display send list

By pressing this button the list of currently active send jobs for this channel will be displayed. Particular jobs can be marked and deleted when required.

This function is not needed by the user. It is available only for special cases !

 


104Router : Parameterization

 

 

104Router : Configuration

 

 

Activate the auto-start function

yes / no

When this parameter is activated the 104Router establishes automatically the connection to the substations for all parameterized channels instantaneously after the start of the program and waits for the establishment of the connection with the system control center.

The auto-activation should be turned on only after the complete parameterization and the test of the settings.

Auto-start delay [sec]

The auto-activation of the router is delayed after the program start by the specified time.

This delay is suitable when the 104Router is started over the auto-start list together with MS Windows®.

 

With the channel button ( channel 1 ...12 ) on the bottom the following settings are possible :

 

Settings for the connection of substations.

 

Interface

For each channel any COM port ( COM 1 till COM 24 ) can be selected.

Modem

An individual modem can be installed and connected for each channel. The 104Router is able to process up to twelve modems in the range of COM1 till COM24 simultaneously. Select here the modem assigned to the selected channel. Normally this assignment will be recognized by the router and the corresponding modem will be set.

Setup Modem

The settings of the modem must be executed via the windows control panel "Phone and modem options". With this button you can check the modem settings and see if they correspond to the 104Router configuration.

Connection type
Full duplex :

Most of the modems are full duplex and can transmit data in both directions simultaneously. DTE ( 104ROUTER ) and DCE ( Modem ) work simultaneously as transmitter and receiver. None of both transmitters has to wait for clearance for transmitting data. Therefore the signals RTS and CTS are not significant. Sure, the 104ROUTER is setting the control signals RTS and DTR to 1 when it is ready for transmission and receipt but it does not check the signals CTS and DSR.

Half duplex :

In case of a half duplex connection DTE ( 104ROUTER ) as well as DCE ( Modem ) can work as transmitter and receiver, hereby only one data line ( 2-wire connection ) is available that can be used alternately for transmission or receipt of data. The control signals RTS and CTS are used in order to define the allocation of transmission or receipt. When the 104Router should work as transmitter it activates the signal RTS and waits for the confirmation of the modem via the signal CTS. After the receipt of the signal CTS the data are transmitted and after the transmission of the data the signal RTS is set to 0. In each other case 104Router is working as receiver only.

As long as the 104ROUTER software is ready for transmission and receipt the signal DTR is activated in order to show the modem that the router is ready for operation, as well the software expects an activated DSR signal from the modem.

RTS Leading delay

0 ... 1000 msec
This parameter ist only used for the connection type "half duplex" and is determined by the initial transient behaviour of the used transmission equipment.
The RTS Leading defines the delay time from activating RTS signal to transmitting the first character and is used for modems whithout the hardware handshake signals "RTS and CTS". In this case the "RTS signal" must be led back over the "CTS line" to the PC with the help of a brazing bridge in the monitor cable. Dependent of the used modem it may be necessary to connect additionally the DTR-pin with the DSR-pin.
This function is deactivated if the "Leading and the Trailing" is set to NULL and therefore the control signals are analyzed diectly from the modem.

RTS Trailing delay

0 ... 1000 msec
This parameter ist only used for the connection type "half duplex" and is determined by the final transient behaviour of the used transmission equipment.
The RTS Trailing defines the delay time from the last character transmitted up to the RTS signal is deactivated.
This function is deactivated, if the "Leading and the Trailing" is set to NULL.

 

Baud rate

Transmission speed : 25 - 115200 baud ( variable )

Data byte

8 bit ( fixed )

Stop bit

1 bit ( variable )

Parity

even ( variable )

Time out

1 - 9999 msec ( variable )

 

Transmission procedure
B :
balanced

If balanced transmission procedure is used, each station may initiate message transfers. The balanced mode is restricted to "point-to-point" or "multiple point-to-point". Balanced mode can be used in a full duplex transmission.

U :
unbalanced

Unbalanced transmission is used in SCADA systems in which a master station controls the data traffic by polling outstations sequentially. The master station is the primary station that initiates all message transfers while outstations are secondary stations ( slaves ) that may transmit only when they are polled.
The unbalanced mode can be used generally, but must be used in party line configuration.

 

Settings for the network connection

 

Local machine

 

Network adapter

If there are several network adapters in the PC the corresponding adapter to be tested has to be selected here.

Network protocol

Here the suitable protocol ( in this case TCP/ IP ) for the router must be selected.

Host Name

No input is possible, it is only a display field !

The name of the PC declared during the network installation is displayed here. It can be set via the network settings in the MS Windows® system control panel.

IP address

No input is possible, it is only a display field !

The IP address allocated to the network adapter is displayed here. It can be set via the network settings in the MS Windows® system control panel.

If no IP address is displayed when opening this register card, the network is not correctly installed in MS Windows® or the connection to the network hub or switch does not exist.

Port number

The 104Router is running as server ( RTU ) and for IEC 104 the port number = 2404 must be used.

 

Remote machine/ Test object

 

Port number

Because the 104Router is running as server this port number is not relevant. ( port = 0 )

 

Receiving data/ Capture

 

Time out [msec]

Recommendation : 200 msec
The router waits this time before continues processing the received network packets. The time out also indicates the end of transmission.

 

104Router : IEC 60870-5-104 Server

 

 

Enable router

yes / no

When this parameter is activated, the 104Router starts automatically the "IEC Server" for the associated channel and waits for the establishment of the connection with the system control center. The assignment to the channel is set in the configuration ( KNF ) over the parameter "simulation list".
( see : IEC 60870-5-104 : RTU ( Server/ Slave ) Simulation )

Message format

With this parameter the Message format of the connected substation is selected.

. IEC 60870-5-101
. Siemens SINAUT ST 1

Route test command

yes / no

When this parameter is activated, the test command ( ID 107, COT 6 ) will be converted to IEC 101 structure ( ID 104, COT 6 ) and forwarded to the substation. This allows to examine the complete transmission path from the control system to the substation and back.

Insert routing addresses
Number of adresses
delete
insert

All connected substations which should be taken into account from the 104Router have to be entered into the station list.

In order to insert the addresses please proceed as follows :

activate "insert routing addresses" ( button "insert" is displayed ).
Insert in the fields "Link address" / "Address of ASDU" / "Channel number" the station to be entered. Take over the address by clicking "insert". When all stations are inserted please deactivate "Insert routing addresses" ( button "insert" disappears ).

In order to delete one or more stations out of this list select it and click "delete".

 

 

End of initialization

yes / no

When this parameter is activated the message "End of initialization" will be transmitted automatically from the 104Router ( server ) as soon as the connection to the client is established.

This parameter should be deactivated in the router mode because the substation message "End of initialization" has to be sent from the substation.

Enable clock synchronization

yes / no

The current system time of the PC will be given back in an activation confirmation ( ACTCON ) of a clock SYNC command ( TypId 103 ), if this parameter is activated. Otherwise the received time will only be mirrored.

This parameter should be deactivated in the router mode because the clock SYNC command is normally forwarded to the substation.

Use system time

yes / no

When this parameter is activated the system time of the PC is entered as time stamp before sending the telegrams. Otherwise the telegram remains unchanged as it previously has been entered by the substation.

This parameter should be deactivated in the router mode because the current time is already entered by the substation.

Send ACTCON respond

yes / no

When this parameter is activated the 104Router will send automatically an "activation confirmation" ( COT 7 ) or "deactivation confirmation" ( COT 9 ) after the receipt of an "activation" ( COT 6 ) or "deactivation" ( COT 8 ) command.

This parameter should be deactivated for the 104Router because the confirmation messages ( COT 7 ) or ( COT 9 ) has to be sent from the substation.

Send ACTTERM respond

yes / no

When this parameter is activated the 104Router will send automatically an "activation termination" ( COT 10 ) delayed by the "ACTTERM delay time".

This parameter should be deactivated for the 104Router because the "activation termination" ( COT 10 ) e.g. at the end of a general interrogation or after the command execution has to be sent from the substation.

Send ACTCON respond
on test command

yes / no

When this parameter is activated the router will send automatically an "activation confirmation" ( ID 107, COT 7 ) after the receipt of a "Test command activation" ( ID 107, COT 6 ).

 

104Router : IEC 60870-5-101 Master

 

 

Enable router

yes / no

When this parameter is activated, the 104Router starts automatically the "IEC101 Master" for the for the associated channel and establishes a connection to the substation. The assignment to the channel is set in the configuration ( KNF ) over the parameter "simulation list".
see also IEC 60870-5-101 : RTI ( Master ) Simulation

Message format

With this parameter the message format of the connected client/ master is selected.

. IEC 60870-5-104

Route ACTCON respond

yes / no

A substation sends automatically an "activation confirmation" ( COT 7 ) or "deactivation confirmation" ( COT 9 ) after the receipt of an "activation" ( COT 6 ) or "deactivation" ( COT 8 ).

The 104Router will forward a confirmation message after the receipt to the client computer of the control center when this parameter is activated.

Route ACTTERM respond

yes / no

A substation sends e.g. at the end of a general interrogation or after the command execution automatically an "activation termination" ( COT 10 ).

The 104Router will forward a termination message after the receipt to the computer of the control center when this parameter is activated.

Route test command respond

yes / no

A substation sends after receipt of a "test command activation" ( ID 104, COT 6 ) automatically a "confirm activation" ( ID 104, COT 7 ).

When this parameter is activated, the test command confirmation ( ID 104, COT 7 ) will be converted to IEC 104 structure ( ID 107, COT 7 ) and forwarded to the control center computer.

Insert routing channel
Number of channels
delete
insert

All connected clients which should be taken into account from the LIAN 98 router have to be entered into the channel list.

In order to insert the channel numbers please proceed as follows :

activate "insert routing channel" ( button "insert" is displayed ).
Insert in the fields "Channel number" the channel to be entered. Take over the channel number by clicking "insert". When all channels are inserted please deactivate "Insert routing channels" ( button "insert" disappears ).

In order to delete one or more channels out of this list select it and click "delete".

 

 

Enable dial-up modem Connection

yes / no

When this parameter is activated, the 104Router automatically establishes a telephone connection via modem to the substation. The assignment, SIM file to the channel is set in the configuration ( KNF ) with the parameter "Simulation List".

see also : Automatic Dial-up Service ( AWD )

Phone number

Enter here the phone number of the partner station to be dialed without blanks and brackets ( e.g. 09131755714 ).

The maximum length of the phone number may be 32 characters.

RTI password

Is the 104Router dialed from a substation, then this substation must send a password to the router after the telephone line is connected. The 104Router compares the received password with the RTI password. If the comparison is positive, the router takes over the function of a master station. When the password is not correct, the connection will be dropped.

The RTI password may contain a maximum of 16 characters.

RTU password

The router dials via the modem a sub-station and sends the RTU password after establishing of the phone connection. Thereafter, the router waits approximately 10 seconds to determine if this station drops the connection due to a password failure. If the phone connection is not terminated during this time, the router switches into the master mode.

The RTU password may contain a maximum of 16 characters.

Disconnect after idle time

10... 3600 seconds

When this parameter is activated, the modem connection will be automatically terminated from 104Router after the specified idle period. The idle time is the period in which no data messages with variable length ( 68H ) were received from the substation.

Re-connect after

1... 10080 minutes ( maximum 7 days )

When this parameter is activated, the modem connection to the substation will be automatically established from 104Router after the specified cycle time. The dial-up cycle time is the period from the last hang-up of the telephone line to the next calling of the substation.

 

 

Enable clock synchronization

yes / no

When this parameter is activated the 104Router will send at first a time synchronization command after the initialization of the communication and repeat it cyclic if necessary ( Clock SYNC cycle time ).

For the 104Router this parameter can be activated or deactivated. If it is deactivated a time synchronizations command from the computer of the control center ( client ) is expected and forwarded to the substation.

Use system date/ time

yes / no

When this parameter is activated the system time of the PC is entered as time stamp before sending a message. Otherwise the telegram remains unchanged as it has been entered previously by the control center computer.

This parameter should be deactivated for the 104Router because the current time is already entered by the computer of the control center ( client ).

Enable general interrogation

yes / no

When this parameter is activated the 104Router will send a general interrogation command after the initialization of the communication and repeat it cyclic ( GI cycle time ).

For the 104Router this parameter can be activated or deactivated. If it is deactivated the general interrogation command is expected from the computer of the control center ( client ) and forwarded to the substation.

Insert scan addresses
Number of addresses
delete
insert

Unbalanced : ( party line )
All stations to be processed at this line have to be inserted into the scan list. LIAN 98 establishes the connection to this stations and interrogates continuously the user data of this stations.

In order to insert the addresses please proceed as follows :

Activate "Insert scan addresses" ( button "insert" will be displayed ).
Insert in the fields "Link address" / "Address of ASDU" the station to be entered in the scan list.
Take over the addresses into the scan list by clicking "insert".
When all stations are inserted, please deactivate "insert scan addresses" ( button "insert" disappears ).

In order to delete a station out of this list select it and click "delete".

Send execute command

yes / no

When this parameter is activated the 104Router will send automatically an "activation, execute command" ( COT 6, execute command ) after the receipt of a "activation confirmation, select command" ( COT 7, select command )

This parameter should be deactivated for the 104Router because the command execution is managed from the computer of the control center ( client ).

 


104Router : Diagnoses

 

104Router : Capture Function

 

 

 

 


MAYR Software

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Manual LIAN 98


LIAN 98 Protocol Router, Simulator and Analyzer
© Copyright 2001, 2006, 2011 by Werner Mayr. All Rights reserved.